A mood disorder implies depression of some type, for a particular length of time and various levels of severity. Some depression symptoms can be situational (ie: related to a medical condition or substance use), whereas others might be chronic. Some examples of mood disorders include Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder and Dysthymia.
Anxiety disorders refer to those emotional struggles that are built upon excessive, repetitive worry and fear. This could present as various scenarios, such as constant worry over being judged by others, a terror response while in a crowded place, dread and excessive sweating on the way to work each morning and many others. Some examples of anxiety disorders include Generalized Anxiety Disorder, phobias, Separation Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder and more.